The colony, named New Amsterdam expanded through out the early 1600s, at the expense of thousands of Native American and colonist lives. The Native American population was also decimated by smallpox, first contracted by the Mohawk following contact with children of Dutch traders. In 1664 an English naval expedition sailed to New Amsterdam and the Dutch, under threat of attack, capitulated; New Amsterdam was renamed New York, after the Duke of York.
New York played a pivotal role during the American Revolution between 1765 and 1783. In 1780 New York, along with a number of other colonies ratified a constitution declaring itself a state, despite being intermittently held by the British during the revolution. In 1787, New York became the eleventh state to ratify the United States Constitution. In 1895 the cities of Queens, The Bronx, Brooklyn and Staten Island voted to join Manhattan becoming part of the Greater New York. Through Ellis Island about 12 million foreigners arrived seeking citizenship in the United States during the 1900s. Through out the 20th century, advances in culture, transportation, architecture, media and more, New York became one of the most happening cities in the world. Alas, the attack of the Twin Towers on September 11, 2001 sent a shockwave of distress among New Yorkers questioning the protection of the citizens. Nevertheless, Gotham City made a comeback with the construction of the Freedom Tower and the 9/11 Memorial site. The resilient city attracts more than 40 million tourists every year.