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During Muslim rule, Christian and Muslim co-operation and alliances were common. The narrative was changed however with the onset of the crusades in the 11th century; when the idea of ‘reconcuesta’ was propagated with political goals of elevating Muslim-Christian hostilities. Internal divides and squabbles within the Muslim empire. led to a weakened government and by 1145 Islamic domination of Spain had ended, with Muslims losing all power with the loss of Granada to Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492.

Famously known for financing Christopher Columbus’s voyage to the New World, the marriage of this couple bought a number of independent Spanis dominions under one rule, thereby unifying Spain. the vigorous pursuit of colonial imperialism by Isabella and Ferdinand led to great prosperity for Spain. The sheer size of the Spanish empire left it open to attacks from multiple fronts. The defeat suffered by the Spanish Armada (a fleet of 130 ships sent to overthrow Englands Elizabeth I) in the 16th century as a tipping point in the and the gradual decline of the empire. A series of events followed such as the Spanish American War, removal of King Alfonso, and the Spanish Civil War, which all gradually led to the declaration of Spain as a constitutional monarchy. Despite her long struggle to find her voice, Spain remains a powerful countries in the world, attracting millions of visitors every year.